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the dendritic cells began stimulating  Accord Oncology Portfolio
        SPECIALITY




                                             regression. Instead, using single-
                                     7       cell RNA sequencing technology,     T cells to attack tumor cells.
                                             they identified a previously unknown
        cell line with a type of colon       activation state of DC2 cells, a    Targeted therapy
        carcinoma, which forms tumors that   different type of dendritic cell, that
        grow larger after being implanted    was driving T cell activation in the   Some types of interferon have been
        in the body. The researchers found   regressing tumors.                  used to help treat cancer, but it can
        that in the progressing tumors, the                                      have widespread side effects when
        T cell response quickly became       The MIT team found that instead     given systemically. The findings
        exhausted, while in the regressing   of ingesting cellular debris, these   from this study suggest that it could
        tumors, T cells remained functional.  dendritic cells swipe proteins called   be beneficial to deliver interferon
                                             MHC complexes from tumor cells      in a very targeted way to tumor
        The researchers then analyzed        and display them on their own       cells, or to use a drug that would
        the dendritic cell populations that   surfaces. When T cells encounter   provoke tumor cells to produce type
        were present in each of these        these dendritic cells masquerading   I interferon, Spranger says.
        tumors. One of the main functions    as tumor cells, the T cells become
        of dendritic cells is to take up     strongly activated and begin killing   The researchers now plan to
        debris from dying cells, such as     the tumor cells.                    investigate just how much type I
        cancer cells or cells infected with                                      interferon is needed to generate a
        a pathogen, and then present the     This specialized population of      strong T cell response. Most tumor
        protein fragments to T cells, alerting   dendritic cells appears to be   cells produce a small amount of
        them to the infection or tumor.      activated by type one interferon,   type I interferon but not enough to
                                             a signaling molecule that cells     activate the dendritic cell population
        The best-known type of dendritic     usually produce in response to viral   that invigorates T cells. On the other
        cells required for antitumor         infection. The researchers found a   hand, too much interferon can be
        immunity are DC1 cells, which        small population of these dendritic   toxic to cells.
        interact with T cells that are able   cells in colon and melanoma tumors
        to eliminate cancer cells. However,   that progress, but they were not   “Our immune system is hardwired
        the researchers found that DC1       properly activated. However, if they   to respond to nuanced differences
        cells were not needed for tumor      treated those tumors with interferon,   in type I interferon very dramatically,
                                                                                 and that is something that is
                                                                                 intriguing from an immunological
                                                                                 perspective,” Spranger says.

                                                                                 The research was funded by the
                                                                                 Koch Institute Support (core) Grant                                                                                  THE MOST EXPERIENCED BORTEZOMIB
                                                                                                                                                                                                      GENERIC IN SOUTH AFRICA 1
                                                                                 from the National Cancer Institute, a
                                                                                 National Institutes of Health Pre-
                                                                                 Doctoral Training Grant, a David H.
                                                                                 Koch Graduate Fellowship, and the
                                                                                 Pew-Steward Fellowship.

                                                                                 Story Source:
                                                                                 Materials provided by                                                     AZACITIDINE                                   1 mg & 3,5 mg
                                                                                 Massachusetts Institute of
                                                                                 Technology. Original written by
                                                                                 Anne Trafton. Note: Content may be
                                                                                 edited for style and length.

                                                                                 Journal Reference:
                                                                                 1. Ellen Duong, Tim B. Fessenden,
                                                                                 Emi Lutz, Teresa Dinter, Leon Yim,
                                                                                 Sarah Blatt, Arjun Bhutkar, Karl
                                                                                 Dane Wittrup, Stefani Spranger.
                                                                                 Type I interferon activates MHC                    QUALITY ONCOLOGY PRODUCTS MADE ACCESSIBLE AND AFFORDABLE TO MORE SOUTH AFRICANS
                                                                                 class I-dressed CD11b conventional
                                                                                 dendritic cells to promote protective        Reference: 1. Oncodata March 2021.
                                                                                 anti-tumor CD8 T cell immunity.              S4 VALTIB 1 mg (powder for solution for injection). Each vial contains 1,0 mg bortezomib. Reg. No.: 52/26/1027. S4 VALTIB 3,5 mg (powder for solution for injection). Each vial contains 3,5 mg bortezomib.
                                                                                 Immunity, 2021; DOI: 10.1016/j.              The reconstituted solution for intravenous injection contains 1,0 mg/ml bortezomib. Reg. No.: 49/26/0891.  S4 PEMETREXED ACCORD 100 mg (lyophilised powder for solution for infusion). Each 4 ml
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                                                                                 immuni.2021.10.020                           vial contains pemetrexed disodium hemipentahydrate equivalent to 500 mg pemetrexed. Reg. No. 49/26/0888.  S4 GRASTIVA 300 mg (pre-filled syringe). Each 0,5 ml pre-filled syringe contains 300 μg
                                                                                                                              filgrastim. Reg. No: 48/30.4/1114. S4 GRASTIVA 480 mg (pre-filled syringe). Each 0,5 ml pre-filled syringe contains 480 μg filgrastim. Reg. No: 48/30.4/1115. S4 INTAZA 100 mg (lyophilised powder for
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